Category: Fertility Education

Getting Pregnant: How Long Does It Take?

Calculating How Long Does It Take to Get Pregnant

how long does it take to get pregnant When you’re trying to conceive, you can’t help but wonder, “how long does it take to get pregnant?” Unfortunately, human beings are the most inefficient mammals when it comes to reproduction. In any given month, a perfectly healthy couple (good eggs and sperm, a healthy uterus and open fallopian tubes) only has a 15-18% chance of conceiving.

In fact, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine found that “a healthy 30-year-old woman has about a 20% change of getting pregnant each month. Then, by age 40, her chance drops to only a 5% likelihood that she will conceive in a given month.”

While these percentages might seem daunting – especially as you age – on average, most couples conceive within six months to a year, with about 80% of couples getting pregnant after six months of trying. However, as you wait it’s perfectly normal to wonder how long it will take to get pregnant. The time may feel like forever with unsuccessful attempts along the way. Not to mention, many women may feel more pressure as they get older.

Increasing Your Chances for Conception

Timing & Ovulation. Ovulation refers to the days in a woman’s menstrual cycle when pregnancy is possible and is sometimes referred to as the “fertile window.” As with all things pregnancy-related, this varies from woman to woman and depends on the length of the menstrual cycle.

If you know your average menstrual cycle length, you can work out when you ovulate. Ovulation happens about 14 days before your period starts.

For example, if your average menstrual cycle is 28 days, you ovulate around day 14, and your most fertile days are cycle days 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. Your egg can only be fertilized for up to 24 hours after ovulation. If it isn’t fertilized, the lining of the womb is shed along with the egg and your period begins, marking the start of the next menstrual cycle.

If you are overwhelmed, there are some helpful pregnancy apps like Glow that will help you calculate your “fertile window” and more. We also go into more detail about ovulation in our blog on How to Get Pregnant.

Factors That Contribute to Conception

Lifestyle Choices. Certain lifestyle choices like maintaining a healthy body weight, not smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, limiting caffeine intake, and reducing stress can all have a positive impact on your fertility health. For more information, see our blog What Causes Infertility in Women.

Age. Experts say a woman’s best reproductive years are in her 20’s, with most women reaching peak fertility between the ages of 23 and 31. Keep in mind, however, in your early 30’s, your chances of conceiving are only slightly lower than in your late 20’s.

This decrease is because the quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs decline with age. A girl is born with 1-2 million eggs. By the time she hits puberty, she has about 250,000-500,000. At age 30-35 a woman has around 25,000 eggs and enters menopause when she has less than 1,000 eggs. For some perspective, the following table highlights the success rates of healthy, fertile women after one year of trying by age:

how long does it take to get pregnant

As you can see from the table above, fertility starts to decline for women from about the age of 30, with percentages decreasing more rapidly from the age of 35.

When to See a Doctor

If you’re under age 35, it is recommended to try to get pregnant for at least a year before testing or treatment. If you’re between 35 and 40, discuss your concerns with your doctor after six months of trying, and if you’re older than 40, schedule a consultation with a reproductive endocrinologist and infertility specialist immediately.

In certain circumstances, it is best for couples to meet with a specialist immediately. These include:

  • Infrequent or absent menstrual periods
  • A history of pelvic infection or sexually transmitted diseases
  • Surgeries on the reproductive organs
  • Known uterine fibroids or endometrial polyps
  • Known male factor semen abnormalities
  • Problems with erection or ejaculation
  • Male partner undergoing testosterone treatment
  • Repeated pregnancy loss or miscarriage
  • Family history of genetic disease
  • Female partner approaching her mid-thirties and wants to multiple children

Conception is Our Life – Vios Expertise and Testing

Vios Fertility Institute offers you a team of compassionate doctors, patient-centered care, expertise, and testing to help you along your unique fertility journey. Diagnostic testing and infertility treatments can take on many forms. Our physicians work with you to understand your goals and develop a plan to meet them. Schedule an appointment today to learn more! You can also keep in touch by subscribing to our emails.

How to Get Pregnant

how to get pregnantThe answer to the question, how to get pregnant, may seem like an overly obvious, but how does a woman get pregnant? The human body is wonderfully complex, and conception is full of tiny, intricate steps that are contingent on many factors – from getting the timing just right to having all the components in working order to create life as we know it.

To understand how to get pregnant and how pregnancy occurs, it’s important to know how a woman’s menstrual cycle ties into the whole process of conception. It will help you to better understand how to calculate when you’re ovulating, the process of fertilization, and implantation, too!

A Woman’s Menstrual Cycle: 28 Days Explained

The menstrual cycle is the monthly hormonal cycle a female’s body goes through to prepare for pregnancy. Your menstrual cycle is counted from the first day of your period up to the first day of your next period.

how to get pregnant

The average menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and can be broken down into two parts:

First, the Ovarian Cycle which includes:

  • The follicular phase
  • Ovulation
  • The luteal phase

And second, the Uterine Cycle which consists of:

  • Menstruation (Period)
  • The poliferative phase
  • Ovulation
  • The secretory phase

Additionally, there are four major hormones involved in the menstrual cycle:

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • Estrogen (E2)
  • Progesterone

The Ovarian Cycle

The Follicular Phase

This phase starts on the first day of your period. During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, the following events occur:

  • The pituitary gland (area of the brain that produces hormones) produces FSH which signals the ovaries to prepare an egg to be released.
  • Depending on your age, several follicles (the “shell” that contains the egg) begins to grow.
  • Halfway through the follicular phase, the lead (largest) egg becomes the dominant follicle and continues to mature and begins to release E2.

Ovulation

During a 28-day cycle, ovulation occurs during the midpoint of the cycle on day 14. For women with longer or shorter cycles it takes place 14 days before the start of their next period. During the ovulation phase:

  • Rising E2 levels from the dominant follicle triggers a surge in the production of LH in the brain.
  • Approximately 24-36 hours after the LH surge, the egg is released or ovulated from the ovary into the fallopian tube.
  • Once the egg is released there is a 12-24 hour window when it can be fertilized by sperm in the fallopian tube.

The Luteal Phase

The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle begins right after ovulation.

  • After it releases its egg, the empty follicle develops into a new structure called the corpus luteum, which secretes the hormone progesterone in preparation for a fertilized egg to implant.
  • If conception has occurred after intercourse has taken place, the fertilized egg (embryo) will travel through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterus and the woman is now considered pregnant.
  • If the egg is not fertilized, it will dissolve and progesterone and E2 levels drop in preparation for menstruation to start.

The Uterine Cycle

At the same time the ovarian cycle is taking place, the uterus is cycling through different stages that support conception.

Menstruation & the Proliferative Phase

Menstruation and the proliferative phase occur at the beginning of your cycle during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle.

  • If the egg is not fertilized or the embryo doesn’t implant in the previous cycle, your next cycle starts with menstruation. Your period is the shedding of old blood and uterine tissue that wasn’t needed to support a pregnancy.
  • The proliferative phase is the time after your period ends before ovulation occurs when the uterine lining (endometrium) thickens to support a potential pregnancy conceived during this cycle.

Secretory Phase

Following ovulation, the endometrium secretes chemical messengers.

  • PGF2a and PGE2 are two prominent prostaglandins chemical messengers that cause the uterus to cramp and help trigger your period when fertilization doesn’t take place.
  • If an embryo implanted, prostaglandins production is inhibited so that the uterine lining isn’t shed.
  • How Long Does It Take to Get Pregnant? What Helps?

For those wondering how to get pregnant, most couples – on average – conceive within six months to a year, with about 80% of couples getting pregnant after six months of trying. That makes human beings one of the most inefficient mammals when it comes to reproduction! For more info, read our blog article Getting Pregnant: How Long Does It Take?

If you’re planning for a family, there are certain things that help – a balanced diet, exercise, and other healthy habits like not smoking and keeping stress levels down – to positively impact your fertility health and increase your chances of conceiving. For more info, check out our blog article on how to get your body ready for pregnancy.

There are also some apps that we recommend, helping track your periods, fertility, and more:

Vios Cares About Making Your Dreams of Parenthood Come True

Conceiving can take time. If you’re under 35 and have been trying to conceive for at least one year (or want more than one child) or if you’re over 35 and have been trying to conceive for six months, you should seek a fertility consultation. Additionally, if you have irregular periods you should seek consultation immediately, regardless of the time you’ve been trying to conceive.

At Vios Fertility, our team approach is to educate and bring awareness to your fertility health while helping you navigate the journey and make your dreams of parenthood a reality. If you are concerned or just want to know your fertility status contact us today to schedule an appointment.

What is Female Infertility?

What are Female Infertility Causes?

female infertility causesAs you research infertility, you have undoubtedly come across many answers to your questions about female infertility causes and still, you keep searching. Wanting a baby and not getting pregnant or being able to carry a child to full term can be devastating and life-altering, and lead to an unrelenting stressful search to “fix it.” Hopefully, after reading this, you will gain some peace of mind and can make a plan to ease the burden you’re carrying.

If you have been trying to conceive for over a year and you are under age 35, if you are over age 35 and have tried for six months, then you would be classified as having infertility. Furthermore, if you have known medical, menstruation, female organ issues, or male reproductive issues that may be impeding your success, you might also have an infertility diagnosis.

Infertility on the Rise

If you are struggling to conceive, you are not unusual. Millions of couples – at least 1 in 6 – have trouble conceiving. In fact, infertility is on the rise and is not just related to age, though that does play a factor.

There are many misconceptions out there about infertility and treatments; our caring fertility doctors at Vios Fertility Institute are here to help you understand the facts of female infertility and female infertility causes. Then, we are here to assist you with growing your family.

Factors That Affect Fertility

Many couples are waiting until their careers and finances are sound before starting a family, which usually means starting later in life, into their 30s and even early 40s. As we age, egg quality diminishes, as does the strength of our reproductive organs. However, waiting does not signal an end to fertility – it just may take longer to conceive.

Medical factors that play a part in female infertility include ovulatory disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, ovarian failure or primary ovarian insufficiency “POI,” recurrent pregnancy loss, and other medical issues.

Lifestyle factors such as being overweight or obese, smoking, excessive drinking, high levels of stress, diet and nutrition, and not exercising or getting quality sleep also play a large part.

With the help of your doctor or fertility specialist, medical and lifestyle factors can be addressed, managed, and in many cases, overcome for a successful pregnancy.

Fertility Myths

“Infertility” is such a final-sounding word, but dealing with infertility does not mean you cannot have a baby. It means you have issues that need to be addressed in order to conceive. We’ve listed some common myths and misconceptions here, but for more thorough information, download our “Common Misconceptions About Fertility” document to help ease your mind and give you hope moving forward.

I’ve been pregnant before, so I’ll get pregnant again – Just because you and/or your partner have had children previously does not mean your systems are functioning 100% properly in order to conceive again. The CDC estimates that 11% of couples have what’s called “secondary infertility” or difficulty getting pregnant despite having had a child previously. Infertility affects men and women, so we recommend you both get tested.

All the women in my family get pregnant at the drop of a hat – Whether your mother or grandmother had children easily or did not have children easily does not automatically guarantee the same results for you. Genetics are a good guide but not the be-all, end-all of what you will experience.

Smoking doesn’t matter that much – Recent research has found that smoking can be associated with up to a 40% lower fertility rate in both sexes. In fact, it is estimated that 13% of infertility in the United States is caused by smoking! We know that smoking prematurely ages eggs and decreases egg count, even in very young women. If you quit, fertility can improve.

Sex several times a week means we should be pregnant – This is not a guarantee that you will get pregnant. Women ovulate once a month and the egg can only be fertilized for ~12-24 hours after ovulation, so there is a very short window of time when the sperm and the egg can meet. The best time to have sex to maximize pregnancy is on the day of or day before ovulation which occurs about 2 weeks prior to your expected period. Sperm can actually stay in the female reproductive tract for up to 5 days, so it’s always better to err with intercourse before ovulation rather than after ovulation. There are ovulation calendars/apps and predictor kits that can help pinpoint your timing.

Age doesn’t matter anymore – Though it’s true that age is not as big of a factor as before (thanks to fertility treatments), women are born with all the eggs they are ever going to have and once they are gone, they are gone. Because of exposures to such things as radiation, chemicals, smoking, and alcohol, eggs can be damaged as women live their lives which increases the risk of chromosome problems (like Downs Syndrome) as women age. Fertility treatments are MOST effective when they are begun early. Many women who are in their 40s will actually require eggs from a younger woman (in her 20s) for a successful pregnancy

There are other myths out there, like the fact that when you see a fertility doctor, he or she will automatically jump to IVF. This is most certainly not true, and in fact, it’s usually a last step after trying other options.

Infertility is not just a woman’s issue. Many men have fertility issues as well.

There is Hope and Help for Fertility

If you’ve been trying to get pregnant for six months to a year without success or the ability to carry a baby, then it might be time to meet with a fertility specialist. Thankfully, in our wonderful world of science and technology, the majority of couples who see a fertility doctor and work together on solving infertility, succeed.

If you have questions about why you can’t get pregnant, female infertility causes, and would like to learn more about the many options in the fertility process, contact us today to schedule an appointment. Our experienced, caring physicians at Vios are here to help.

Miscarriage and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

recurrent pregnancy lossWhen most women think of fertility specialists, they about difficulty conceiving a pregnancy, but fertility specialists (also known as Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Specialists) also see women who can get pregnant but have difficulty staying pregnant because of miscarriage or recurrent pregnancy loss.

Egg Health

As women age, the number of eggs in their ovaries decreases and the quality of those remaining eggs can also decline. Eggs that are less healthy have a higher chance of fertilizing incorrectly, leading to an embryo that has either too many or too few chromosomes to produce a viable pregnancy. This change in the eggs over time is why miscarriage risk goes up with the age of the woman. The risk for miscarriage is approximately 25% of pregnancies in women age 35-39, 50% in women age 40-44, and as high as 90% in women 45 or older.

Diagnosing Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Because having one miscarriage is so common, the diagnosis of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is made after a woman experiences two or more miscarriages that are far enough along to either see the pregnancy with an ultrasound or confirm the pregnancy by looking at the tissue under a microscope. This means that very early, or biochemical, pregnancies that stop developing before this stage don’t technically count toward making the diagnosis of RPL.

If a woman is diagnosed with recurrent pregnancy loss, it’s important to have a thorough evaluation done to check for preventable reasons for the miscarriages and improve the chance that the next pregnancy will be healthy. Some of the tests that may be done include blood tests for genetic, autoimmune, or hormonal issues as well as a 3D ultrasound of the uterus to check for any anatomic problems like a uterine septum or scar tissue in the uterus. If an infection of the uterus is suspected, testing for that will be recommended as well. It is also important to screen the male partner for certain genetic or sperm quality concerns that may be contributing to the pregnancy losses.

October is Infant and Pregnancy Loss Awareness Month and a good opportunity to discuss miscarriage openly. It is not something to be ashamed of or kept secret. In fact, once the miscarriage conversation is started, you realize how many women have been affected. Having a miscarriage can be incredibly difficult emotionally and having multiple miscarriages can feel devastating. It is important to know that help is out there and many reasons for miscarriage are treatable. Most women will go on to have a successful pregnancy! The first step toward success is seeking help.

There is Hope and Help

If you have questions about recurrent pregnancy loss and miscarriage and would like to learn more about the many options in the fertility process, contact us today to schedule an appointment. Our experienced, caring physicians at Vios are here to help.

Debunking the Myths: Top 5 Facts Men Should Know About Male Infertility

male infertilityMyths about male infertility are varied and widely believed. If you’re trying to become a parent, do you believe having sex daily with your partner will increase your odds of conception? Are you convinced boxers will boost your sperm production? Maybe you think difficulty conceiving is related to a female fertility problem.

The reality is that out of all cases, infertility can be due to the woman, the man, or a combination of the two. In fact, 1 in six couples have problems conceiving, and male infertility makes up about 50% of all infertility cases. However, most men don’t go in for a noninvasive diagnosis until their partner has  had extensive evaluations. Male comprehensive tests, including hormonal testing, semen analysis, and testicular ultrasounds, are painless and straightforward.

Here are some other facts that debunk other common myths. How many of them do you know?

1 – Daily Intercourse will not Improve the Odds of Conception

Most people believe that the more you try, the higher the odds of becoming pregnant. The truth is you should look at the timing. A man’s sperm can live for 48 to 72 hours inside a woman’s reproductive tract. For those trying to conceive timing intercourse to match a woman’s fertile window, the five to six days before ovulation, is vital

2 – Boxers or Briefs? It Doesn’t Matter!

The choice of underwear doesn’t affect male fertility. Research has shown that while the testicles need to stay a few degrees cooler than the body’s core temperature for proper sperm production, wearing snug underwear doesn’t seem to have much impact. On the other hand, experts recommend staying out of hot tubs to avoid unnecessary heat exposure.

3 – Not All Men Have Sperm in Their Semen

An absent sperm count affects approximately 1% of the male population. There may be a problem even if the ejaculate looks normal since most of the ejaculated fluid isn’t sperm. The best way to know for sure is to have a semen analysis, or sperm count, to test the health and vitality of the sperm. Testing is simple and painless and there are treatment options if a problem is diagnosed.

4 – Age Can Affect Your Sperm

While men can still procreate well into their later years, their sperm numbers decline along with their testosterone. Also, research has found older sperm can contribute to conditions like autism and schizophrenia in children who are conceived after their father turns 50.

5 – Self-Exams and Check-ups Are Important for Male Fertility

Examining your scrotum monthly not only helps you identify the early stages of testicular cancer but also possible varicoceles, enlarged veins in the scrotum that can cause future infertility. A yearly check-up with a urologist can keep you better informed about your reproductive health as well.

Although some causes of male infertility are out of your control, it is important to live a healthy lifestyle with good nutrition, exercise, and lower stress. By doing so, you will have a head start in addressing all the aspects of male fertility that you do have control over. Learn more in our articles: What is Male Infertility and What Causes Infertility in Men.

Conception is Our Life. Vios Cares About Making Your Dreams of Parenthood Come True

If you are struggling with male infertility, you are not alone. Comprehensive tests, including hormonal testing, semen analysis, and testicular ultrasounds, are painless and straightforward. Vios Fertility Institute offers you a team of compassionate doctors and state-of-the-art testing and treatment options to help you along your unique fertility journey.

Take control of your fertility health and contact us today to schedule a consultation!

Nutrition and Fertility

pregnancy dietIf you are currently trying to get pregnant or planning to try for pregnancy in the next several months, it’s time to start thinking about your nutrition. A healthy pregnancy diet can improve your chance for pregnancy as well as shorten the time it takes to get pregnant.

Importance of Body Mass Index

By now we have all heard that having a normal body mass index, or BMI, gives you your best chance for getting pregnant and your lowest risk for miscarriage. What you may not know is that regardless of your BMI, making healthy dietary changes can still have a very beneficial effect.

Standard American Diet

Unfortunately, most Americans eat what is called the Standard American Diet that includes high amounts of meat, dairy products, and processed foods while consuming too few fruits, vegetables, and whole grain carbohydrates. Over time, this type of diet and can lead to chronic inflammation throughout the body that is thought to be the starting point for many diseases. The Standard American Diet has led to not only obesity, cancer, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes, but can also contribute to fertility problems in men and women.

Choosing the Best Pregnancy Diet Food

There are a few simple changes that you can make that can start you on the path to better health and improved fertility.

  • Increase your consumption of whole grains like whole wheat bread, quinoa, and brown rice
  • Add more fruits and vegetables to your plate and try to mix it up so you get a wide variety of colorful food for maximum phytonutrients
  • Try to get most of your daily protein from vegetables (yes, veggies have protein!) or low mercury-containing fish rather than from meat and dairy
  • Avoid processed foods and choose healthy snacks like nuts instead
  • Limit refined sugar and simple carbohydrates like white rice and white flour
  • Eliminate sugary beverages! This includes soda, sweetened tea or coffee drinks, and juices
  • If you’re craving a treat, 2 small squares of dark chocolate per day is good for you!

Prenatal Vitamins

Now of course one final thing to mention is the importance of starting a prenatal vitamin a few weeks before you conceive. Starting your vitamin early means that you will have the best chance for adequate folic acid levels to reduce the risk for certain birth defects that can start developing before you even know you’re pregnant.

Check my Instagram discussion of fertility nutrition and wellness @healthyfertilitymd

What Causes Infertility in Women?

infertility in womenAn estimated 10 to 18 percent of couples have trouble getting pregnant, staying pregnant, or having a successful delivery. Female infertility, defined by a woman that is unable to get pregnant after one year of trying (or six months if a woman is 35 or older), effects as many as 6.1 million women according to the CDC.

Before understanding the causes of infertility in women, it can be helpful to understand what is needed for a woman to become pregnant. The following must occur, her:

  • Ovaries must release a mature egg during ovulation
  • Fallopian tubes must be open to allow the sperm to fertilize the mature egg, creating an embryo
  • Uterus must be healthy and unobstructed to allow the embryo to implant and to support the developing fetus

Causes of Female Infertility

Female infertility can be difficult to diagnose. In women, several factors can disrupt this process, resulting in infertility. The most common reason why women experience infertility is due to ovulation disorders. If you have an ovulation disorder, you may ovulate (a mature or immature egg) infrequently or not at all. Symptoms of ovulation disorders can include irregular or absent menstrual periods.

Problems with the regulation of reproductive hormones, such as with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), can also cause issues with ovulation. PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility. Problems in the ovary can cause ovulation disorders, such is the case with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), in which a woman’s ovaries stop functioning normally before she is 40.

Less common causes of fertility problems in women include:

  • Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes – This can be due to several factors, including:
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes due to chlamydia, gonorrhea or other sexually transmitted infections.
    • Surgery in the abdomen or pelvis, including surgery for an ectopic pregnancy.
    • Endometriosis, when uterine lining tissue develops outside the uterus, which can damage the fallopian tubes. Surgery to remove tissue outside of the uterus to alleviate pain can also cause scarring. Endometriosis can also disrupt the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus.
  • Physical problems with the uterus or cervix, due to:
    • Uterine polyps or tumors (fibroids or myomas), which are non-cancerous clumps of tissue and muscle on the walls of the uterus.
    • Uterine abnormalities present from birth, such as an abnormally shaped uterus.
    • Abnormal cervical mucus which can hinder how sperm travels through the cervix into the uterus.
  • Unexplained causes – Some fertility challenged couples will be told there is no explanation for why they can’t conceive. It may be important to note, however, that in many cases, the odds of conceiving on your own may be higher than it is for most infertility diagnoses.

Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference

Risk factors that are a result of certain lifestyle choices may put you at a higher risk of infertility. You can increase your chances of conception by following advice regarding basic lifestyle choices. These include:

  • Maintain a healthy body weight. Overweight and underweight women are at increased risk of ovulation disorders.
  • Exercise moderately. Overly excessive exercise has been associated with decreased ovulation.
  • Quit smoking. See Can Smoking Really Affect My Chances of Getting Pregnant for more info.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid illicit drugs.
  • Reduce stress. Stress can make it more difficult to conceive and even affects men too. For more, read our Stress and Conception.
  • Limit caffeine. Reduce consumption to 1 to 2 cups of coffee per day or eliminate completely.

The main risk factor that you can’t control? Age. The quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs begin to decline with increasing age. For more information, read our article How Does Age Affect A Woman’s Ability to have a Baby?

Conception is Our Life

At Vios, we care about making your dreams of parenthood a reality. Not being able to conceive a child can be stressful and frustrating, but we are here to help and have a variety of infertility diagnostic tests and treatment options available.

To understand what infertility treatments may be best for your situation, contact us today to schedule an appointment.

Common Causes of Infertility

causes of infertilityAccording to The American Society for Reproductive Medicine, infertility is defined as the inability of a sexually active couple who are not using birth control to get pregnant after one year of trying, and for women who are 35 or older, that window shortens to 6 months. Causes of infertility can be due to the woman, the man, by both the woman and man, or due to unknown problems.

Out of the 15% of couples that have trouble getting pregnant, female infertility affects about 10% of women of reproductive age and approximately 7% of all men.

Common Causes of Infertility in Women

The most common cause of infertility in women is due to ovulation disorders, accounting for about 1 in 4 infertile couples. Every month during the female menstrual cycle, an egg is released from the ovaries into the fallopian tubes in a process called ovulation. Prior to being released, follicles – each containing an immature egg – in the ovaries must grow and develop into mature eggs. While a woman’s body has many immature follicles, each month only one becomes the dominant follicle that matures and is released during ovulation. For conception to be achieved, ovulation must occur.

If you have an ovulation disorder, you may have irregular or absent menstrual periods, meaning there is no egg (or an immature egg) available to be fertilized.

PCOS

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infertility in women and is responsible for 70% of infertility issues in women who have difficulty ovulating. The condition is caused by problems with the regulation of reproductive hormones that results in a series of small cysts on the ovaries. PCOS is defined by an erratic menstrual cycle, meaning your periods can be irregular or even no period at all for a few months at a time. According to the PCOS Foundation, 10 percent of women of childbearing age are affected, but less than half are diagnosed.

The ovulation-inducing oral medications clomiphene citrate (also known as clomid) and letrozole are the principal treatments used to promote ovulation. For women not responsive to these medications, even with diet and lifestyle modification, there are additional treatment options available such as stimulating the ovaries to produce eggs with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) injections followed by an intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

POI

Problems in the ovary can also cause ovulation disorders, such as with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), in which a woman’s ovaries stop functioning normally before she is 40. It’s less common than PCOS, affecting 1 in 100 women younger than 40, and the main cause is from hormonal imbalances. The first sign of POI is usually menstrual irregularities or missed periods. Additionally, some women with POI have symptoms like those experienced by women who are going through natural menopause.

For patients diagnosed with POI, the most common fertility treatment includes donor eggs. For young patients who are beginning to experience the symptoms of POI, fertility preservation may be an option.

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a disorder where uterine lining tissue develops outside of the uterus on the pelvic organs. The uterine lining continues to function like it would in the uterus by thickening and breaking down with each menstrual cycle. However, this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body which leads to pain, adhesions, and scarring. Endometriosis can affect the fallopian tubes, ovaries and other pelvic tissue which can affect your chances of conceiving. This can also disrupt the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

For women with endometriosis, there are different treatment options based on the severity of their disorder. It is also important to note that endometriosis may worsen with time and a consultation with a fertility specialist at a younger age can help guide the patient on their chances of success as they age.

Common Causes of Infertility in Men

Causes of infertility in men is usually due to deficiencies in the semen, such as low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. The following are some common male fertility conditions:

  • Varicocele – The most common (and reversible!) cause of male infertility is varicocele – a condition of swollen testicle veins that is present in about 15% of all men and in about 40% of infertile men.
  • Klinefelter Syndrome – a chromosomal defect that occurs in males early in the womb that results in smaller testes which reduces the levels of testosterone and sperm production that naturally occurs.
  • Immune infertility related to antisperm antibodies – when the immune system mistakes sperm for a harmful intruder cell and tries to destroy them is considered the cause of infertility in roughly about 20% of infertile couples.

There are several ways in which a male’s sperm production can be considered abnormal, the most common being:

  • Oligospermia – when there is a low concentration of sperm in the semen. Often, exhibiting a higher percentage of abnormal sperm cells.
  • Azoospermia – when there is no measurable level of sperm in the semen.
  • Necrospermia – when the sperm is either immobile or dead.

While published statistics tend to focus on the woman, it is important to note that male infertility diagnoses are just as common. In most cases, there is no obvious sign that a man is infertile without testing.

Unexplained Causes

Approximately 1 in 4 fertility challenged couples will be told there is no explanation for why they can’t conceive. It may be important to note, however, that in many cases, the odds of conceiving on your own may be higher than it is for most infertility diagnoses.

At Vios Fertility, Conception is Our Life

At Vios, we are here to make your dreams of parenthood come true. Not being able to conceive a child can be stressful and frustrating, but a number of infertility diagnostic tests and treatments are available. We work with you to show you your chances of success utilizing different treatment plans based on your specific medical situation. During your consultation, we will discuss your goals for family building, your medical history, and review needed fertility testing to determine the best treatment path for you.

To understand your specific options concerning fertility diagnosis and treatment paths, schedule a consultation today.

Am I Fertile?

Fertility and Ovulation

fertileFertility is defined by the ability of a woman to conceive and bear children through normal sexual activity. Ovulation, on the other hand, refers to the actual day in a woman’s menstrual cycle when pregnancy is possible and occurs when hormone changes trigger an ovary to release an egg. A woman’s fertile window varies but is generally the day an egg is released from the ovary (ovulation) and the five days beforehand.

So, how do you know if you are fertile? The odds are with you because only about 12% of women have trouble getting or staying pregnant, according to the National Center for Health Statistics. However, it can be hard to know your fertility until you try to conceive. Here are some things that can give insight into your fertility health:

  • Your age – a woman’s fertility declines with age. Fertility is at it’s peak when we’re young adults with average fertility declines starting in the mid-30s and ending with menopause.
  • Regular menstrual cycles – show hormones are in sync and you are ovulating.
  • Healthy teeth and gums – research show those with gum disease take longer to conceive and good dental health reduces risk of miscarriage.
  • Pelvic pain – long heavy, painful periods or pelvic pain could be a sign of fibroids or endometriosis which can affect your ability to conceive. Pelvic trauma or past surgeries can also affect fertility.
  • Unchecked STDs – pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a byproduct of certain STDs, can damage your reproductive organs and increase your risk of infertility. Practice safe sex, and if you think you have an STD, see your doctor right away for treatment.
  • Healthy lifestyle – eat a healthy diet, get good exercise, lower stress, don’t smoke, and limit alcohol intake to help improve your fertility.
  • Healthy weight – a body mass index (BMI) that is too low can cause ovulation to stop as the body tries to conserve energy. A BMI that is too high can disrupt hormone levels. Insulin resistance can inhibit ovulation and affect egg quality as well as embryo/fetus development. A healthy BMI range is from 20-24.

Also, knowing about ovulation and the changes in a woman’s body will give clues about the best time to conceive. Here’s how you can recognize the signs that can indicate when you’re ovulating:

  • Cervical mucus – More estrogen causes cervical mucus to become stretchy and clear, like egg whites. This helps sperm survive and swim. After ovulation, cervical mucus becomes stickier and thicker.
  • Abdominal pain – A mild ache or pain in the lower abdomen that comes on suddenly, usually on the side of the ovary releasing the egg, called Mittelschmerz. This can occur just before ovulation when follicle growth stretches the ovary or when the follicle ruptures and the egg is ovulated.
  • Breast soreness/tenderness – This usually begins around ovulation and is caused by the rush of hormones.
  • Light spotting or discharge.
  • Increased sex drive

Some women find it helpful to use a fertility calendar to track their fertile days and ovulation. We recommend Glow, Fertility Friend, or Clue, apps for fertility and more. Other tracking tools are over-the-counter ovulation predictor kits like those made by Clearblue. These kits are designed to detect increased hormone levels in urine and signal when you’re most fertile.

Let’s Talk About Infertility

What is infertility? Infertility affects about 10% of women aged 15 to 44 and is defined as the inability of a sexually active couple who are not using birth control to get pregnant after one year of trying, according to The American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

For women who are younger than 35 and aren’t pregnant in a year or for women who are 35 or older and aren’t pregnant in 6 months, plan to see a fertility specialist. Around 85% of couples who are trying will be pregnant within a year, so if you can’t get pregnant now, it could be a sign that something medical is preventing you from conceiving and you may need extra help to achieve your goals of a family.

Of all cases, infertility can be due to the woman (33%), the man (33%), by both sexes, and due to unknown problems (33%), approximately.

The best way to know if your fertile is to get a fertility checkup to check your hormone levels and egg health.

At Vios, Conception is Our Life

Just as each individual is unique, the same is true of their fertility.  During your consultation, we will discuss your goals for family building, your medical history, and review needed fertility testing to determine the best treatment path for you.

To understand your specific options concerning fertility diagnosis and treatment paths, schedule a consultation today.

How Does Age Affect A Woman’s Ability to have a Baby?

Age and Fertility

age and fertilityWhen you are trying to conceive, it can be daunting to look at the charts that indicate your chances of getting pregnant in your 20s, 30s, and so on. But how do age and fertility go together to really affect a woman’s ability to have a baby?

“Your biological clock is ticking” is an unwelcome statement most women have heard at some point during their life. Unfortunately, your ticking clock is based on clear data and time will run out. However, just how much one’s chances fall as one ages can be unexpected. The undeniable truth is that age is the most significant factor that affects a woman’s fertility and chance to have a healthy baby, and it affects men too!

Best Years

A woman’s best, physical reproductive years are in her 20s. During this time, she has a 25-30% chance of getting pregnant each month. Even though the 20s are prime time for a woman’s body, that isn’t always the case when it comes to being ready to have a child. In fact, an increasing number of women are choosing to wait to have children.

In fact, when the Centers for Disease Control studied birth rates in 2016, they found that “rates for older women continued to rise, resulting in a higher birth rate for women aged 30–34 than for women aged 25–29 for the first time since 1940 when the data became available.”

Even though, most women reach peak fertility between the ages of 23 and 31, your chances of conceiving in your early 30s are only slightly lower than in your late 20s.

So, while a woman’s fertility starts to decline in her early 30s, that decline doesn’t start impacting most women until it begins to speed up after age 35. That means there is a big difference in try to conceive in your early 30s compared to your late 30s.

The Dreaded Decline

It’s a pretty well-known fact that age 35 is a significant milestone for women when it comes to fertility and starting or growing your family. By age 40, the chance of getting pregnant every month drops from 25-30% in your 20s down to just 5% every month, with about 25% of women over 35 experiencing difficulties becoming pregnant.

What Aging Does to The Body’s Reproductive System

For women, the number of eggs you’re born with are all the eggs you get. That set number of eggs age with you throughout your lifetime and decrease in quality and total amount over time. A newborn baby girl is born with 1 to 2 million eggs and by puberty, that number goes down to about 250,000-500,000 eggs. By early to mid-30s, a woman has around 25,000 eggs left. Just as leading a healthy lifestyle can slow the decline of egg quality, bad habits can age eggs faster. Unfortunately, you can’t reverse the damage once it’s been done.

As men get older, it is a decline in testosterone that affects fertility. Male fertility generally starts to decline around age 40 to 45 years of age. The volume, quickness (motility), and overall quality of the sperm declines as men age. While the decline of male fertility is subtler, it still presents increased risks for the health of the child.

Chance of Conception Decreases While Risks Increase

It’s important to understand the increased complications of advanced maternal age and be as proactive in addressing and mitigating these risks the best way possible. We know aging reduces the overall chances of pregnancy and increases time to pregnancy (how many cycles it takes to conceive), but aging on both the man and woman’s parts can negatively affect your pregnancy and the baby’s health.

Genetic abnormalities increase as the age of the parents rises, leading to a higher chance of miscarriage as well as pregnancy-related complications like an increased risk for an ectopic pregnancy. The rates of gestational diabetes, and high blood pressure. Furthermore, c-sections also increase for those over 35 compared with mothers in their 20s. Additionally, complications for the baby, including preterm birth, poor fetal growth, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality increase with advanced maternal age. Most significantly for aging men, fathers aged 40 or over are at increased risk of having children with mental health and developmental disorders.

Understanding YOUR SPECIFIC Risks

While this all may sound scary, it is important to note every couple is different. Try to keep in mind that most healthy women over the age of 35 have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. A consultation with a board-certified OB/GYN or reproductive endocrinologist (REI) will help you understand your specific risk factors based on a comprehensive overview of your medical history and overall health as a couple. Your physician can also review additional steps (like lifestyle changes) or tests (like genetic testing) that can be done to increase your overall chances for a successful outcome.

Ready or Not, You Have Choices

As with all things pregnancy-related, fertility is different for each individual woman, but experts say that women age 35 and older need to get serious if they want to have children and especially if they want more than just one child.

If you aren’t ready for children as you approach that 35-year milestone, you do have options if you still want children one day. Some women choose to freeze their eggs. This option literally freezes the eggs at the age the woman is at retrieval. With egg freezing you can pursue other goals without giving up your dreams of parenthood! While there are more options available the younger a woman is, women over 35 still have choices about building a family. A consultation with a fertility expert can give you more information on options that might be the right fit.

Help If You Need It – Vios Cares About Making Your Dreams of Parenthood Come True

Our mission, at Vios Fertility Institute, is to help our patients find their way to fertility health and treatment with the highest chance of success by providing them with innovative, scientific, cutting-edge treatment options along with an unparalleled patient experience.

Contact us today to schedule an appointment,  and we can discuss options for achieving your ideal family!